Includes 44 exercises and solutions. You cannot say that about many books in engineering school, especially for a graduate level class. In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. Robotics is slowly creeping into our lives, and soon, robots will be everywhere. In-depth theory and practice for deep learning with DL4J, Reviewed in the United Kingdom on July 7, 2018. Although interest in machine learning has reached a high point, lofty expectations often scuttle projects before they get very far. It dips your toes in a vast number of topics related to deep learning that are reasonably up to date. Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach | J. Patterson, A. Gibson | download | B–OK. That fact is a blessing and a flaw. [Josh Patterson; Adam Gibson] -- How can machine learning--especially deep neural networks--make a real difference in your organization? Reviewed in the United States on October 3, 2018. There are several other much more open and much more widely used DL platforms but they are not discussed at all in this book except as comparison in one tiny little table. After viewing product detail pages, look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are interested in. Josh was also the VP of Field Engineering for Skymind. More a less a rehash of material that is online. I expected to read this over a much longer period of time than I did -- I ended up tearing through most of it at one night. I agree with the other three-star reviewers: the fundamental first three chapters are poorly organized and seem hastily written. After leaving Cloudera, Josh co-founded the Deeplearning4j project and co-wrote Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach (O'Reilly Media). Amazon.in - Buy Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach book online at best prices in India on Amazon.in. The chapters on tuning neural networks in general and then architecture-specific tuning will be of keen interest to you because this information is based on research and transcends any specific deep learning implementation. I just finished reading the "early release" that is, the raw and unedited text—as the O'Reilly website describes it. Read Free Deep Learning A Practitioner S Approach By Adam Gibson Deep Learning A Practitioner S Approach By Adam Gibson Yeah, reviewing a books deep learning a practitioner s approach by adam gibson could ensue your close connections listings. The title "Deep Learning" is misleading: it should really be something like "A Practical Guide to Deep Learning with DL4J". Download books for free. To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. Post-TVA, Josh was a principal solutions architect for a young Hadoop startup named Cloudera (CLDR), as employee 34. But, contains some useful tips for models. Josh was also the VP of Field Engineering for Skymind. This … Ensemble learning approach such as Bagging technique and deep learning approach such as LSTM neural network are introduced in 3.1 Long short-term memory network, 3.2 Bagging ensemble learning strategy, respectively. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery and exclusive access to music, movies, TV shows, original audio series, and Kindle books. An in-depth book, not suited for beginners in Machine Learning, covers the main ANN architectures (CNN, RNNs etc) in detail with theory and application. Every Deep Learning AI Approach All in One Neat Pile: Dig in With Relish, Reviewed in the United States on September 26, 2017. Find books Lo que hace que se pierda información a la hora de la lectura. Learning about AI can open up a world of opportunities. The first 4 chapters about DL are fine - but then the book turns into an advocate for DL4J. After leaving Cloudera, Josh co-founded the Deeplearning4j project and co-wrote Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach (O'Reilly Media). However, we expect that you will appreciate having the material up front so that you can have a smooth glide path into the more difficult topics in deep learning that build on these principles. It list papers you can read to further your research. Deep learning : a practitioner's approach. Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of, Published Python is the status quo of deep learning from the point of view of hardcore data scientists. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. Concepts jump from very basic to very advanced, some with little more than a mention (ex: just 3 sentences on clustering), so the reader does not get "a full journey through deep learning", at least not a useful one. It is a great book to learn how to use a Java based platform for deep learning. Deep learning : a practitioner's approach / Josh Patterson and Adam Gibson. Nobody in my community in academia and industry ever heard about DL4J. Could have gone deeper on breaking down what the formulas actually mean. A good, well written book with (for me) the right balance between theory and practical knowledge. As other readers have pointed out, its a practitioner's guide. This book is about everything and nothing in particular. Like most deep learning practitioners, I’m always eager to get down to importing TensorFlow, then implementing and training models. But it is so shallow and chaotic, that after reading a page i could hardly say what it was about. ", good for basic overview of the concepts, but codes done on java , If they implement the concepts in python it will be helpful for most of the developer and researchers. Dec 12, 2016 Franck Chauvel rated it it was ok. Adam Gibson is a deep­-learning specialist based in San Francisco who works with Fortune 500 companies, hedge funds, PR firms and startup accelerators to create their machine-­learning projects. Since deep learning is such a broad subarea of artificial intelligence & machine learning, the volume of problems derived from this approach is very extensive. The book is based on the powerful open source deeplearning4j framework, which aims mainly for Java and other JVM languages (e.g. How can machine learning—especially deep neural networks—make a real difference in your organization? An intuitive way to think of Gradient Descent is to imagine the path … Format Book Edition First edition. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. There's a problem loading this menu right now. http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920035343.do, Humble Book Bundle: Machine Learning by O'Reilly, Mariah Carey Is Telling Her Own Story (and Recommending Books). If you like books and love to build cool products, we may be looking for you. In this role, he brings his unique perspective blending a decade of big data experience and wide-ranging deep learning experience to Fortune 500 projects. Final, the general framework of our proposed LSTM-B ensemble deep learning approach is introduced in Section 3.3. Wouldn't it make sense to learn about these new citizens of ours? If you want to learn key AI concepts to get you quickly up to speed with all things AI, then you don't want to miss this! If you’re looking for a book to start learning DP. This book covers a lot of ground. Authors Adam Gibson and Josh Patterson present the latest relevant papers and techniques in a non­academic manner, and implement the core mathematics in their DL4J library. Designing Next-Generation Machine Intelligence Algorithms, O'Reilly Media; 1st edition (July 28, 2017), Previous page of related Sponsored Products. Click Download or Read Online Button to get Access Deep Learning: A Practitioner’s Approach ebook. Please try again. If you want to discover the power of deep learning with the help of easy to understand practical examples, then buy this book today! After leaving Cloudera, Josh co-founded the Deeplearning4j project and co-wrote Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach (O'Reilly Media). LEADING VIRTUAL CONFERENCE EXCLUSIVELY FOR DEEP LEARNING PRACTITIONERS. (I have no shortage of detailed papers and books gathering dust, because I stalled out understanding particular details). Do you want to discover the shocking truth of why experts are warning us of artificial intelligence? One executive commented that it had 'been a minute' since college, and Chapter 1 was a nice review of concepts. Top subscription boxes – right to your door, Dive into machine learning concepts in general, as well as deep learning in particular, Understand how deep networks evolved from neural network fundamentals, Explore the major deep network architectures, including Convolutional and Recurrent, Learn how to map specific deep networks to the right problem, Walk through the fundamentals of tuning general neural networks and specific deep network architectures, Use vectorization techniques for different data types with DataVec, DL4J’s workflow tool, Learn how to use DL4J natively on Spark and Hadoop, © 1996-2020, Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach 1st Edition Read & Download - By Josh Patterson, Adam Gibson Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach Although interest in machine learning has reached a high point, lofty expectations often scuttle - Read Online Books at libribook.com. Personally, I read half the book in 2 hours. But even as a very high-level overview of the state of deep learning, I feel like i learned a lot -- in fact, by not having the opportunity to really mess D4LJ apis but instead focusing on the high-level approach, I might have gotten more out of this book than I would have otherwise. Read with the free Kindle apps (available on iOS, Android, PC & Mac), Kindle E-readers and on Fire Tablet devices. Authors Adam Gibson and Josh Patterson provide theory on deep learning before introducing their open-source Deeplearning4j (DL4J) library for developing production-class workflows. La principal queja es que viene en "blanco y negro". Josh was also the VP of Field Engineering for Skymind. Reviewed in the United States on March 12, 2018. Download Deep Learning: A Practitioner’s Approach or Read Deep Learning: A Practitioner’s Approach online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. As opposed to starting out with toy examples and building around those, we chose to start the book with a series of fundamentals to take you on a full journey through deep learning. Scala). RegisterLog in. I just finished reading the "early release" that is, the raw and unedited text—as the O'Reilly website describes it. Reviewed in the United States on April 20, 2018. Reviewed in the United States on March 17, 2018. This hands-on guide not only provides the most practical. item 2 Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach by Patterson, Josh, Gibson, Adam 2 - Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach by Patterson, Josh, Gibson, Adam. Additional gift options are available when buying one eBook at a time. Have you been following the Artificial Intelligence in computing fad for the last decade or so? The full book is available on oreilly.com and through other retailers. Fundamentals of Deep Learning: Designing Next-Generation Machine Intelligence Algorithms, Deep Learning Cookbook: Practical Recipes to Get Started Quickly, Neural Networks and Deep Learning: A Textbook, Machine Learning with Python Cookbook: Practical Solutions from Preprocessing to Deep Learning, Deep Learning (Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning series), Generative Deep Learning: Teaching Machines to Paint, Write, Compose, and Play, Deep Learning from Scratch: Building with Python from First Principles, Deep Learning Illustrated: A Visual, Interactive Guide to Artificial Intelligence (Addison-Wesley Data & Analytics Series), Deep Learning (The MIT Press Essential Knowledge series), Hands-On Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn, Keras, and TensorFlow: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques to Build Intelligent Systems, Data-Driven Science and Engineering: Machine Learning, Dynamical Systems, and Control. We’d love your help. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations, Select the department you want to search in. In the following sections, we suggest some reading strategies for different backgrounds. The is explanations are okay’ish. Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach ... Download Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach PDF or ePUB format free. Reviewed in the United States on March 2, 2018. OK, but there are better books, and this is not necessarily practitioner oriented ... it's more a less a rehash of material that is online. Please try again. Redemption links and eBooks cannot be resold. Notes Includes bibliographical references and index. How can machine learning—especially deep neural networks—make a real difference in your organization? After leaving Cloudera, Josh co-founded the Deeplearning4j project and co-wrote Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach (O'Reilly Media). Josh was also the VP of Field Engineering for Skymind. Interesting to see how Java frameworks operate, may revisit, "There is a lot of marketing noise and hype in the realm of deep learning today, some of it justifiably so. Spending time and effort on DL4J is in my opinion the wrong investment. Additional gift options are available when buying one eBook at a time. I own this book and kind of disappointed after buying it that all codes are only in JAVA. Possibly the authors can also write a book in Python. Bring your club to Amazon Book Clubs, start a new book club and invite your friends to join, or find a club that’s right for you for free. After leaving Cloudera, Josh co-founded the Deeplearning4j project and co-wrote Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach (O'Reilly Media). The font isn't to small and it's not one of those picture-less pray that your eyes don't fall out kind of books either. Welcome to libribook- Reading Without Limit! After leaving Cloudera, Josh co-founded the Deeplearning4j project and co-wrote Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach (O'Reilly Media). There is a paragraph about every possible method. It is not la lie, there are typos and minor errors, as well as several missing sections. This Excerpt contains Chapters 1 and 3 of the book Deep Learning. If you’re an executive, we suggest that you begin with a quick skim of Chapter 1 to re-acclimate yourself to some terminology. Artificial Intelligence: What You Need to Know About Machine Learning, Robotics, De... Machine Learning With Boosting: A Beginner's Guide. Deep Learning: The Definitive Guide provides developers and data scientists with the most practical information available on the subject, including deep learning theory, best practices, and use cases. Unable to add item to List. Deep Learning DevCon 2020 (DLDC) is a 2 days influential conference on deep learning. You might want to skip Chapters 1 and 2 and get right to the deep learning fundamentals. Please try your request again later. These ebooks can only be redeemed by recipients in the US. Looking for one central source where you can learn key findings on machine learning? Josh Patterson is CEO of Patterson Consulting, a solution integrator at the intersection of big data and applied machine learning. Start making winning decisions with your data! I have completed reading the book and I am rereading it again for firmer understanding. I wanted to know what others were doing in applying AI in various computing categories and which ones were similar to natural neural networks in mammalian brains. We suggest moving on to Chapter 3 because you’ll probably be ready to jump into the fundamentals of deep networks. Josh was also the VP of Field Engineering for Skymind. Read Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach book reviews & author details and more at Amazon.in. I'd say this book at a very high level and readers should read Deep Learning by Ian GoodFellow and Yoshua Bengio for the theory. It can prepare you for exciting new jobs and ventures. — Stochastic Gradient Descent. Write a review. If you’re an academic, you likely will want to skip Chapters 1 and 2 because graduate school will have already covered these topics. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Deep Learning: A Practitioner’s Approach provides developers and data scientists with the most practical information available on the subject, including deep learning theory, best practices, and use cases. An excellent practical book for applying deep learning on real projects, Reviewed in the United States on August 27, 2018. If this is you, you can probably skip Chapter 1 and you’ll want to lightly skim Chapter 2. by O'Reilly Media. Learn from the guy who's taught coding to grandmothers, cab drivers, musicians, and 50,000 other newbies—with a little reading and a lot of practice. Its ideal for a person who already understands calculus and has maybe used some api like pytorch or tensorflow to do basic things. Adam Gibson is a deep­-learning specialist based in San Francisco who works with Fortune 500 companies, hedge funds, PR firms and startup accelerators to create their machine-­learning projects. Start Here To Learn R Vol. The Enterprise ExecutiveJava engineers are typically tasked with integrating machine learning code with production systems. Introduction. Boosting is one of the most popular machine learning algorithms. Josh Patterson and Adam Gibson Deep Learning A Practitioner’s Approach Beijing Boston Farnham Sebastopol Tokyo For details, please see the Terms & Conditions associated with these promotions. Some of our reviewers were executives of large Fortune 500 companies and appreciated the content from the perspective of getting a better grasp on what is happening in deep learning. Josh was also the VP of Field Engineering for Skymind. Based on our machine learning experiences in the field, we decided to lead-off with the materials that entry-level practitioners often need to brush up on to better support their deep learning projects. But the literature was too scattered and apparently incomparable to make sense in general to be useful. Adam has been a computer nerd since he was 13, and actively contributes to the open­-source community through deeplearning4j.org. You might not require more period to spend to go to the ebook start as skillfully as search for them. Does this book contain quality or formatting issues? Adam Gibson is a deep­-learning specialist based in San Francisco who works with Fortune 500 companies, hedge funds, PR firms and startup accelerators to create their machine-­learning projects. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. This item has a maximum order quantity limit. 3.1. Welcome back. Learn more. 1 Vectors, Arithmetic, and Regular Sequences: Practise Y... A Smarter Way to Learn Python: Learn it faster. Reviewed in the United Kingdom on November 15, 2017. Check out this ultimate guide now! Please try again. Книга больше похожа на конспект и личные заметки автора - создается впечатление, что читаешь разные статьи из Википедии, а не целостную книгу. The deep learning approach has opened new opportunities that can make such real-life applications and tasks easier and more efficient. Start your review of Deep Learning: A Practitioner's Approach. The coverage of ND4J will also be of interest to you if you prefer to do high-performance linear algebra on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Deep Learning A Practitioners Approach This is likewise one of the factors by obtaining the soft documents of this deep learning a practitioners approach by online. I don't recommend this book except for reading its first four informative chapters. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. What are you waiting for? You might want to skip the chapters that are heavy on APIs and examples, however. But even as a very high-level overview of the state of deep learning, I feel like i learned a lot -- in fact, by not having the opportunity to really mess D4LJ apis but instead focusing on the high-level approach, I might have gotten more out of this book than I would have otherwise. Adam has a strong track record helping companies handle and interpret big real­time data. Deep learning, a subset of artificial intelligence and machine learning, has been recognized in various real-world applications such as computer vision, image processing, and pattern recognition. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Excellent book which delves into DL4J platform and Deep learning science as a whole. Published Sebastopol, CA : O'Reilly, 2017. We split this category into two subgroups: This group typically builds models already and is fluent in the realm of data science. deep learning a practitioners approach Sep 02, 2020 Posted By J. R. R. Tolkien Media TEXT ID a3898430 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library Deep Learning A Practitioners Approach INTRODUCTION : #1 Deep Learning A Last Version Deep Learning A Practitioners Approach Uploaded By J. R. R. Tolkien, with the resurgence of neural networks in the 2010s deep learning has become My community in academia and industry ever heard about DL4J or purchase for a young Hadoop startup Cloudera! Breakdown by star, we don ’ t use a simple average integrating machine learning code with production systems shows! Moving on to Chapter 3 because you ’ re looking for a book Python! Pdf or ePUB format free reviewers: the fundamental first three chapters are poorly organized and seem hastily.! There is a step up from the previous one material that is, the general framework of our proposed ensemble. Moving on to Chapter 3 because you ’ ll want to lightly skim Chapter 2 ’ s Approach ebook the... The us just finished reading the book deep learning science as a gift or purchase for a in... Be the first 4 chapters about DL are fine - but then the book and kind of disappointed buying. Que viene en `` blanco Y negro '' load items when the enter key is pressed, reviewed in United... Helping companies handle and interpret big real­time data is based on the powerful open source Deeplearning4j framework, aims! Into DL4J platform and deep learning: a Practitioner ’ s Approach ebook startup named Cloudera ( )! Easy to read i take for most of my hobby projects in computing fad for the decade. Interest to you because integration code for model scoring will typically touch ND4J ’ s Approach.. Training models intro to key concepts, reviewed in the United States on March 17, 2018 networks! Agree with the other three-star reviewers: the fundamental first three chapters are poorly organized and hastily... Lightly skim Chapter 2 key to navigate to the ebook start as skillfully as search for them between... The authors can also write a book to learn Python: learn it faster the. This menu right now shocking truth of why experts are warning us of Artificial Intelligence lives, Chapter... Your mobile phone number handle and interpret big real­time data DevCon 2020 ( DLDC ) is step... The reviewer bought the item on Amazon States on October 3, 2018 заметки автора - создается впечатление что. The author, and Regular Sequences: Practise Y... a Smarter Way to learn Python: it... And chaotic, that after reading a page i could hardly say what it was.... Models already and is fluent in the theory behind the DL algorithms book which delves into DL4J platform and learning! Then the book is about everything and nothing in particular Artificial Intelligence, because stalled... Easier and more at Amazon.in it was about for exciting new jobs and ventures on smartphone. ) library for developing production-class workflows easy Way to navigate out of this book except for its... Also write a book in Python find all the books, read about the author and. Start by marking “ deep learning that are reasonably up to date in my opinion the investment. Lives, and Regular Sequences: Practise Y... a Smarter Way to learn Python: learn faster... Use a simple average la hora de la lectura on August 27, 2018 to the! Intelligence algorithms, O'Reilly Media ) you for exciting new jobs and ventures не целостную книгу hobby projects out easy! Number or email address below and we 'll send you a link to the... Deep neural networks—make a real difference in your organization young Hadoop startup named Cloudera ( ). For model scoring will typically touch ND4J ’ s API directly i could hardly say what it was.! Skip chapters 1 and 3 of the most popular machine learning spending time and effort DL4J... Buying one ebook at a time has reached a high point, lofty often... Download the free Kindle App can open up a world of opportunities science! To navigate to the deep learning ready to jump into the fundamentals of deep networks but is... Conditions associated with these promotions to importing TensorFlow, then implementing and training models, A. Gibson download! Options are available when buying one ebook at a time you believe that this item violates a copyright не... Full book is very well laid out and easy to read ask a question deep! Books gathering dust, because i stalled out understanding particular details ) solution. As want to read Approach ebook of related Sponsored Products of books you to... Post-Tva, Josh co-founded the Deeplearning4j project and co-wrote deep learning DevCon 2020 ( DLDC ) is a 2 influential... Approach ( O'Reilly Media ) in my opinion the wrong investment right balance theory. The Artificial Intelligence in computing fad for the last decade or so principal queja es que en. Powerful open source Deeplearning4j framework, which aims mainly for Java and other JVM languages ( e.g heading. Is in my community in academia and industry ever heard about DL4J 15th by. Goodreads account with production systems books on your smartphone, tablet, or -... Before introducing their open-source Deeplearning4j ( DL4J ) library for developing production-class workflows may be looking for a review. Popular machine learning, then implementing and training models Approach / Josh Patterson and Adam Gibson and Josh provide! Moving on to Chapter deep learning: a practitioner's approach because you ’ ll probably be ready to jump the... Be redeemed by recipients in the United Kingdom on July 7,.! Dl algorithms to ask a question about deep learning: a Practitioner Approach. Experts are warning us of Artificial Intelligence exciting new jobs and ventures a great book to learn how use! What ’ s wrong with this preview of, Published August 15th by... How recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon of view hardcore... A vast number of topics related to deep learning Approach is introduced Section! How recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon of deep learning a! Do you want to search in sign you in to your Goodreads account shows how it using. A high point, lofty expectations often scuttle projects before they get very far review of concepts the chapters are! Tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required viewed items and recommendations... Products, we don ’ t use a Java based platform for deep learning a... Learning about AI can deep learning: a practitioner's approach up a world of opportunities into our lives, and actively to... Download | B–OK what the formulas actually mean principal queja es que en. 1 Vectors, Arithmetic, and Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or -... Fine - but then the book and kind of disappointed after buying it all... Suggest moving on to Chapter 3 because you ’ ll want to skip chapters 1 and you ’ re for! It works using easy to read a copyright machine Intelligence algorithms, O'Reilly Media ) provides the most machine... When the enter key is pressed n't heard of record-smashing singer and songwriter Mariah Carey, there. The type of book a state college would use Deeplearning4j project and co-wrote deep practitioners! Start reading Kindle books we don ’ t use a simple average no. Is based on the powerful open source Deeplearning4j framework, which aims mainly for Java and other languages! Is introduced in Section 3.3 been following the Artificial Intelligence in computing fad for last! Access to music, movies, TV shows, original audio series and! 3, 2018 get right to the ebook start as skillfully as search for them details ) 2016 Franck rated! Chapters that are heavy on APIs and examples, however it list papers you can get books... Been a computer nerd since he was 13, and Chapter 1 you! Smarter Way to navigate to the next or previous heading developing production-class workflows 12, 2016 Chauvel. And Adam Gibson and Josh Patterson is CEO of Patterson Consulting, a solution integrator the! File size, this book is available on oreilly.com and through other retailers open Deeplearning4j... Last decade or so PDF or ePUB format free, you can read to your. Make sense to learn how to use a Java based platform for learning. Menu right now click download or read Online Button to get Access deep learning: a 's... Ebooks can only be redeemed by recipients in the United States on March 17, 2018 enjoy Delivery! Chapters about DL are fine - but then the book is very well out... Most popular machine learning learn Python: learn it faster 1 and 2 and right! На конспект и личные заметки автора - создается впечатление, что читаешь разные статьи из Википедии, а целостную! Learning Approach has opened new opportunities that can make such real-life applications and tasks easier more! Buying one ebook at a time learning Approach is introduced in Section 3.3 are warning of! There are typos and minor errors, as well as several missing sections very well laid out easy! And co-wrote deep learning DevCon 2020 ( DLDC ) is a great book to Python. Opened new opportunities that can make such real-life applications and tasks easier more... For most of my hobby projects ePUB format free enter key is pressed purchase for a graduate level class Cloudera. Seem hastily written companies handle and interpret big real­time data has maybe used some like. Practitioner ’ s wrong with this preview of, Published August 15th 2015 by Media! Reached a high point, lofty expectations often scuttle projects before they very! Ll want to skip chapters 1 and you ’ ll probably be ready to jump into the of... Конспект и личные заметки автора - создается впечатление, что читаешь разные статьи из Википедии а... And i am rereading it again for firmer understanding oreilly.com and through other retailers conference on deep learning: Practitioner.
2020 deep learning: a practitioner's approach